Sunday, January 21, 2007

舯舡 (tongkang)


战前槟榔屿是欧亚船舶经常停泊的港口,除了客货轮川行外,还有不少帆船和舯舡航行,航运堪称畅通。 

Penang is the popular sea port for the berthing of marine vessels from European and Asian countries in the pre-World War time.

Besides commercial passenger and general cargo vessels, there were many junks (sailing vessels) and tongkang (sampan) sailing and moving around the island that created a smooth and complete marine logistic network.

百余年来,槟城对邻近国家的贸易,仍以进行物物交换, 一直到50年代才渐告停顿。泰国的木材,亚齐的槟榔枳,缅甸的仰光豆赂等等,各港口运来槟城或转口的物产是相当的多,船舶多为木造帆船。

The barter trading held between Penang and the neighbouring countries was practiced over the past hundred years until the trading was lessened to a halt by the 1950’s.

Timber from Thailand, pinang (betel nut) from Aceh, beans from Yangoon and lots of imported or tranship native products from other ports were mostly carried by the wooden tongkang.

由欧美英澳,印度日本,中国香汕厦沪等较远地的货物则由大货轮或客货船运来。槟城海墘(Weld Quay),港口码头Sweetenham Pier 的深度在低潮时容不下吃水深的大货轮靠岸, 唯有停在海中, 将货轮内的散杂货物由船舱吊卸到舯舡, 再驳到码头仓库。舯舡业是当年海运中的主要辅助与支线运输工具。

Miscellaneous goods from country that were far away like European countries, USA, Australia; India, Japan; Hong Kong and China such as Shantou, Xiamen and Shanghai were carried by commercial passenger vessels or general cargo ships.

As the depth of the sea water at low tide around Weld Quay and Sweetenham Pier was not sufficient to support the bigger vessels to alongside the harbour, cargo ships had to be anchored at mid sea.

Cargoes were unloaded to tongkang and then forwarding to terminal warehouse. Tongkang in the maritime industry was that the main and auxiliary extension carriers.

舯舡(Tongkang)为大型木造舢板, 船身高度比一般舢板高深, 以便容纳较多货物,由拖船(Tugboat) 拖动营运水域。码头工友(苦力)在海墘(Weld Quay)由舯舡驳运来的货物扛卸到码头仓库或货车, 要不就是把欲出口的货物卸下到舯舡, 再驳到海面的专船载往目的地。

Tongkang was a larger wooden sampan (boat) of which the sidewall was higher than sampan to accommodate more cargoes. Tongkang was towed by tugboat in the trading waters.

Workers (coolies) at Weld Quay were lightering the goods from Tongkang to terminal storage or truck. Goods were also unloaded to tongkang and transhipped to cargo vessels for export to the desired destinations.

80 年代舯舡还很普遍地在海墘运转,至到90年代集装箱运输的普及,船主无货可载,才开始陷入停顿状态。今天槟城海面木造舯舡已告绝迹,被铁驳船 (Steel Barge) 取而代之。

Tongkang were still widely operated around Weld Quay in 1980's. By the 1990’s, due to the common use of container vessels, owner of tongkang could hardly find cargo to carry that the activity of tongkang began to a standstill.

Replaced by steel dumb barges today, sightings of wooden tongkang has been extinct in the sea of Penang.

当年舯舡兴盛时期,槟城造船厂约有几十间,多为华人开设的,散设在北海双溪赖,槟城日落洞,海墘一带。今天在海墘红灯角海滩,可见到被遗弃在烂泥中的旧舯舡,任由风吹日晒,海水冲刷,局部地风化腐烂为烂泥。 想不到当年舯舡的建造工地竟成为它们的葬身之地。

In the glorious times of tongkang, there was a large number of Chinese owned shipyards (shipbuilding industry) performing ship repairing work and construction of wide variety of ship. The industry was scattered at the coastal areas of Prai, Jelutong and Weld Quay.

Today, the abandoned tongkang could be seen around the beach of Weld Quay and Macallum Street. Left under the erosion of wind, drying sun and decay fungi, the tongkang were finally submerged in mud. The previous construction sites of tongkang were finally and unexpectedly became their burial place.










Sunday, January 7, 2007

槟城渡轮码头



那是还没有槟威大桥的年代, 槟城乃一海岛,与马来亚半岛大陆之交通,端赖过海渡轮。早期渡轮由殖民地政府港务局(Harbour Board)购置登陆艇改造,用以川行於槟岛与北海之间。渡轮除运载搭客货物之外,兼运汽车过海。港务局也出售渡轮月票优待经常乘搭渡轮过海的搭客和学生。

槟岛之火车站,即无月台,又不见火车,一般火车乘客,先在火车站购车票,然后到义兴街火车桥码头,乘渡轮过海,费时廿五分钟左右,抵对岸之新路头火车站,始由该处上火车南行或北上。而乘搭火车旅客抵达北海火车站,则转搭由铁道局之渡轮运往槟岛。 外来者对此渡轮程序,皆啧啧称奇。70 年代后期铁道局终止火车渡轮服务, 现在槟岛火车桥码头已改建为游艇停泊中心。

渡轮事务后交由槟城港口有限公司(Penang Port Commission)掌管,两岸各自曾增添一个码头,全盛期,共启用了十三艘渡轮日夜川行两岸四个码头之间。 不过,连接两岸长达13.5公里的槟威大桥在1985年开始启用后,渡轮的光彩也开始暗淡下来。 更衰退至1988年北海码头发生平台結构不能负荷过重的人潮而倒塌事件,暂停两个对岸渡轮码头服务至今。渡轮的风光一去不复返, 逐渐的失去了以住的地位與价值。








Saturday, January 6, 2007

槟岛升旗山缆车






槟岛升旗山缆车乃1915年由本屿商家合资建筑登山铁路, 特请德国工程师计划, 起点在现今亚逸淡山谷附近, 采用枕木铁路,经营4,5年,卒以资金不足及险事屡见而失败。

至1920年, 再由马来亚联邦铁路局承办建造, 聘请英人工程師約翰遜(A.R.Johnson)计划兴建,1923年10月21日才正式开車。到1924年1月1日,则归槟榔屿之殖民地政府管理。

缆车用电力开行,两辆客车各系铁索之一端, 以一升一降。载货的车, 则另用一车斗,相接在缆车上端,装货后,车斗在上山时推之而上,下山则随之滑溜而下。

在此也原文转载资深政治评论家拿督谢诗坚先生撰写的一篇“升旗山缆车一段古”, 以供大家对槟岛升旗山缆车有更一步的了解。

升旗山纜車一段古 2004.02.05 (謝詩堅)

提起升旗山,不由得想起一段古。

因為檳榔嶼有山有水,風光綺麗,因此它成了旅遊勝地。

在英國統治時期,它對升旗山的開發興緻勃勃。

初時並不刻意發展成名勝地,而是英國大官避暑之地,山上建有別墅洋樓,居高臨下,市區景色盡收眼簾。

這座山高2400英尺的升旗山,在1897年時,只有一條山路,備有藤椅橋,單供富紳達官往山上別墅或到一間葛力克酒店避暑。後來英殖民政府在山麓和山頂之間建纜車鐵路,並在1906 年完工。可是問題來了,由於鐵軌太長,又是使用水力發電,以致無法使纜車移動,整個計劃算是失敗了。工程終被擱置和凍結。

1918年第一次世界大戰後,英殖民政府有前車之鑑,乃聘請英人工程師約翰遜(A.R.Johnson)前往瑞士考察該國纜車工程設計與行走情況。返檳後,在馬來聯邦鐵道公司斥資馬幣200 萬令吉下,由約翰遜督導全部工程,他改弦易轍,將纜車分成兩段進行,而不是直接由山底拉到山頂。即在半山腰再設一個分站,換句話說,山麓至半山腰是一段;由半山腰再至山頂是另外一段。使兩段纜車獨立操作,但開行的時間相互配合,恰到好處。

這樣的設計使到纜車減少了負荷,而可以被拉動,它的結構是不論上段或下段,都是採用單軌制,而在中間有一道分叉鐵道,讓一上一下的車廂擦身而過,同行同止,互為軒輊。只用鋼索拉動,無人駕駛,但有管理員控制,可隨時停行讓遊客下車或上車(因半途有別墅和山上人家居住)。

這改良後的纜車(從下到上分兩段,但全長5哩半)於1923年大功告成。在10月21日由海峽殖民地總督主持通車禮。從茲升旗山掀開歷史新頁,也成了檳城人民的驕傲。因為在世界上只有3個地方有這樣的山路纜車,一個在瑞士,另一個在香港太平山,下來就是檳城了。

纜車行駛緩慢,從山下到半山腰需時15分鐘;再從半山腰到山頂也是費時15分鐘。即是從山下到山頂,如果順利的話(包括在半山腰轉站),共要40分鐘左右;若是遇上大節日或遊客過多,則等候的時間長過坐車的時間。雖然如此,遊客們對乘坐纜車的興趣不減。不是因為山上風光特別吸引人,而是因為纜車的設計是令人畢生難忘的。

我們的纜車工程到了獨立(1957年)後的今天依然故我。間中曾有過更換新的車廂,其他一切沒有太改變。

為甚麼乘坐纜車是最安全的?原來在英國工程師設計的時候,有考慮到安全措施。它備有自動引擎,一旦拉車的鋼索發生問題時,該引擎勾角會自動啟用,能在1公尺至1點5公尺距離內勾住鐵軌,不讓車廂滑落。

不但是鋼纜有問題時能自動煞車,即使是電流失效供應時,也備有輔助發電機。通車以來,纜車從未發生大事故,就是由於已做足了安全功夫。

還有鐵道是筆直而上,其斜度是3比1,因此需要蠕動而行,不能快速。除了每天使用纜車的人覺得太慢外,絕大部份的遊客都很喜歡享受這樣的徐徐而行的扶搖直山。

政府也曾經考慮到要建一條公路,以吸引更多的遊客一遊升旗山。也許是基於經濟因素,未有此大工程進行。不過目前倒是有一條可通車但未開放的通道,不致因為纜車停止服務而未有交通工具取代。無論如何,它只是暫時性措施。我們還是認為具有80年歷史的升旗山盡可能修工讓它再行操作起來,除非已被證明完全不能修復;需要耗巨資重建。不然保留有歷史意義的“古跡”,亦能襯托出檳城是“獨一無二”的文化遺產勝地之一。

Tuesday, January 2, 2007

安顺半港 Hutan Melintang


After posting the early ferry pictures of Old Penang, I made a wish to go on board any ferry keeping to old days. I made it Christmas’s eve, 24-12-2006 by taking a ferry to cross the Bernam River from Hutan Melintang.

Hutan Melintang is a small town in Hilir Perak District, 23 km from Teluk Anson (now renamed as Teluk Intan). There are about 400 fishing ships of various sizes in Hutan Melintang.

Bernam River is located between the states of Perak and Selangor. The ferry is operated by an Indian pilot and a conductor collecting boarding fees, carrying a maximum of 24 passengers and motor-cycles. One ferry operated to and fro the jetties while the other ferry is on standby ready to operate should the one failed to operate and/or during peak hour.

It took 10 minutes ride to cross the river to the palm oil plantation of United Plantations Berhad. What a remarkable trip!








槟岛木寇山 (Pulau Jerejak)



莱特氏开辟槟榔屿时,极力鼓励邻近人民移居槟岛,然而岛上初时不卫生,疟疾(Malaria)猖獗流行,死亡率极高。为防范传染病的传播,将本岛东南方之木寇山例为新移民隔离中心,唯通过健康检查的新移民,才被允许登岸槟岛。

1930 年代殖民地政府在岛前建了一间疯人院,背面则为禁疫所: 痳疯院(Leprosy). 二战后,疯人院并归霹雳州丹绒红毛丹(Tanjong Rambutan),因肺痨(Tuberculosis)病染者极多,木寇山改为肺痨病院,为痨疾病人之养疴胜地。为利便病人家眷前往探视起见, 当局特备电船由槟岛驶往木寇山, 唯该岛属禁区,故须向先申请准证,才能由维多利亚码头乘电船赴木寇山。肺痨病院和痳疯检查院也在1960年迁至雪兰莪州的(Sungai Buluh)。

1969年改为扣留513事件的涉及人犯,后期又改为专门扣押涉及毒品和私会党的劳改营, 1988年中央政府才将木寇山主权交回槟州政府,多年来槟州政府的几个开发提议都不了了之。 直到近年来才正式开发成今天的"Jerejak Resort & Spa".